beer_styles

beer_basics1

beer_terminology1

India Pale Ales

American India Pale Ale/IPA English-Style India Pale Ale/IPA Imperial India Pale Ale

Brown Ales

American Brown Ale English-Style Brown Ale English-Style Mild Scottish-Style Ales Scotch Ale/Wee Heavy Scottish-Style Ale

Bocks

German-Style Bock German-Style Doppelbock German-Style Maibock German-Style Weizenbock

Porters

American Imperial Porter Baltic-Style Porter English-Style Brown Porter Robust Porter Smoke Porter

Stouts

American Imperial Stout American Stout English-Style Oatmeal Stout English-Style Sweet Stout (Milk Stout) Irish-Style Dry Stout

Dark Lagers

American Amber Lager German-Style Dunkel German-Style Marzen/Oktoberfest German-Style Schwarzbier Vienna-Style Lager

Hybrid Beers

American Cream Ale French-Style Biere de Garde California Common German-Style Brown/Altbier German-Style Kolsch Irish-Style Red

Wheat Beers

American-Style Wheat Wine Ale American Wheat Belgian-Style Wit Berliner-Style Weisse German-Style Dunkelweizen German-Style Hefeweizen

Pilseners and Pale Lagers

Bohemian-Style Pilsener European-Style Export German-Style Helles German-Style Pilsener

Pale Ales

American Amber Ale American Pale Ale English-Style Bitter Blonde Ale English-Style Pale Ale/ESB

Belgian Styles

Belgian-Style Blonde Ale Belgian-Style Dubbel Belgian-Style Golden Strong Ale Belgian-Style Lambic/Gueuze Belgian-Style Pale Ale Belgian-Style Quadrupel Belgian-Style Saison Belgian-Style Tripel

Strong Ales

American Barley Wine American Imperial Red Ale British-Style Barley Wine Ale English-Style Old Ale Wild/Sour Beers American Brett American Sour Belgian-Style Flanders Belgian-Style Fruit Lambic Belgian-Style Lambic/Gueuze

Specialty Beers

American Black Ale Barrel-Aged Beer Chocolate Beer Coffee Beer Fruit and Field Beer Gluten Free Herb and Spice Beer Honey Beer Pumpkin Beer Rye Beer Session Beer Smoke Beer Specialty Beer

Beer Pouring

Pouring beer is an art, and definitely part of the overall tasting experience. We always suggest that you drink a beer out of a glass, and recommend that you read Glassware for Beer. It’s a great primer to understating why, and a guide to pairing a beer to its appropriate glass. The following demonstrates the most common pouring technique, which can be applied to most beers and glassware types. You’ll also find that most bartenders pour draught beer as follows too.

Steps to a Perfect Pint

  • Use a clean glass. A dirty glass, containing oils, dirt or residuals from a previous beer, may inhibit head creation and flavours.
  • Hold your glass at a 45° angle. Pour the beer, targeting the middle of the slope of the glass. Don’t be afraid to pour hard or add some air between the bottle and glass.
  • At the half-way point bring the glass at a 90° angle and continue to pour in the middle of the glass. This will induce the perfect foam head. And remember, having a head on a beer is a good thing. It releases the beer’s aromatics and adds to the overall presentation. You may also want to gradually add distance between the bottle and glass as you pour, to also inspire a good head. An ideal head should be 1″ to 1-1/2″.

With bottled conditioned beers, that may have a considerable amount of yeast in the bottle, you may wish to watch closely as you pour … if you don’t like yeast in your poured beer. However, this is the highlight of some beers and actually wanted. Just note that the inclusion of yeast will alter the clearness and taste of your poured beer, and lively yeast is high in vitamins and nutrients!

Types of Hops

Humulus Lupulus (hops) are the flowering cone of a perennial vining plant and a cousin of the cannabis variety (sorry no THC in this stuff) that typically thrives in climates similar to the ones that grapes do. Hop plants are dioecious, meaning the males and females flower on separate plants — and the female cones are used in the brewing process. Hops are the age old seasoning of the beer, the liquid gargoyles who ward-off spoilage from wild bacteria and bringers of balance to sweet malts. They also lend a hand in head retention, help to clear beer (acting as a natural filter) and please the palate by imparting their unique characters and flavours. Basically, hops put the “bitter” in beer. The following is a growing list of different hop varieties.

Ahtanum Ahtanum is an aroma-type cultivar bred by Yakima Chief Ranches. Its name is derived from the area near Yakima where the first hop farm was established in 1869 by Charles Carpenter. (alpha acid: 5.7-6.3% / beta acid: 5.0-6.5%)

Amarillo Amarillo is an aroma-type cultivar of recent origin, discovered and introduced by Virgil Gamache Farms Inc. (alpha acid: 8-11% / beta acid: 6-7% )

Cascade Cascade is an aroma-type cultivar which originated as the first commercial hop from the USDA-ARS breeding program. It was bred in 1956 but not released for cultivation until 1972. It reached its peak in 1975 when it produced 13.3% of the total American crop. It was obtained by crossing an English Fuggle with a male plant, which originated from the Russian variety Serebrianka with a Fuggle male plant. A very popular U.S. variety, with a moderate bitterness level and fragrant, flowery aroma. Cascade is often used in highly hopped West Coast ales that have a citrus-floral hop character. (alpha acid: 4.5-6.0% / beta acid: 5.0-7.0% )

Centennial Centennial is an aroma-type cultivar, bred in 1974 and released in 1990. The genetic composition is 3/4 Brewers Gold, 3/32 Fuggle, 1/16 East Kent Golding, 1/32 Bavarian and 1/16 unknown. A relatively new hop on the market, this hop used to be called CFJ90. Described by some as a “Super Cascade” and we tend to agree, but it’s not nearly as “citrusy”. Some even use it for aroma as well as bittering. Bitterness is quite clean and can have floral notes depending on the boil time. (alpha acid: 9.5-11.5% / beta acid: 4.0-5.0%)

Chinook Chinook is a bittering variety with aroma characteristics released in May, 1985. It was bred by crossing a Petham Golding with the USDA 63012 male. A high alpha acid hop with a wonderful herbal, almost smoky character when used as an aromatic during the last few minutes of the boil when dry hoping. Excellent for hopping American-style Pale Ales, especially those brewed to higher gravities. (alpha acid: 12.0-14.0% / beta acid: 3.0-4.0%)

Columbus his high alpha variety has a pungent aroma and clean bittering. Excellent for bitter ales and American IPA styles, and can be dramatic when dry hopped. (average alpha acid: 12%)

Cluster Cluster originated from mass selection of the Cluster hop, which is an old American cultivar. It is suggested that they arose from hybridization of varieties, imported by Dutch and English settlers and indigenous male hops. (alpha acid: 5.5-8.5% / beta acid: 4.5-5.5%)

Crystal is a triploid aroma-type cultivar, released for commercial production in 1993. It originates from a seedling selection (No. 8309-37) made at Corvallis in 1983 between the colchicine – induced tetraploid ‘Hallertau mf’ (USDA 21397) and the diploid male downy mildew resistant aroma hop, USDA 21381M. Crystal is a half-sister of Mt. Hood and Liberty. (alpha acid: 4.0-6.0% / beta acid: 5.0-6.7%)

Fuggle Fuggle is an aroma-type cultivar selected in England as a chance seedling in 1861. It reached its peak in the U.K. in 1949 when 78% of the English crops were grown as Fuggle. It is also marketed as Styrian (Savinja) Golding in the Slovenian Republic. In the USA it is grown in Oregon and Washington State. Superb in English-style ales, and lends a unique character not imparted by the more subtle American-grown Fuggles. (alpha acid: 3.8-5.5% / beta acid: 1.5-2.0%)

Galena Galena is a bittering-type cultivar which was bred in 1968 from Brewers Gold and an open pollination, i.e. an unknown male plant. It was released for cultivation in 1978. Galena is the most “mellow” hop of the high-alpha varieties, and has replaced Cluster as the most widely grown US hop. The bitterness is clean and well balanced. Great general purpose bittering hop. (alpha acid: 12.5-14.0% / beta acid: 7.5-9.0%)

Golding Golding is a group of aroma-type cultivars originating in England. Over the decades, the group has been changed and widened. Mostly they have been named after villages in East Kent, (Petham, Rothersham, Canterbury, Eastwell) or hop farmers, who grew them (Amos’s Early Bird, Cobbs). English Goldings grown in East Kent, are a premium hop, called East Kent Golding and should not be confused with U.K. Goldings, which are grown in other parts such as Kent, Worcestershire, Hampshire and Herefordshire. The cultivar grown in the USA (Oregon and Washington State) is a Canterbury Golding. The premier English aroma hop. Superb in English-style ales, and lend a unique character to fine lagers as well. This hop has a unique spicy aroma and refined flavor. (alpha acid: 4.0-6.0% / beta acid: 2.0-3.0%)

Hallertau mf Hallertau mf (Mittelfrueh) is an aroma-type cultivar which originated in Germany as a land – race hop. The original Hallertau mf in Germany has been replaced with other Hallertau types with similar quality characteristics. The name indicates that it is a middle to early ripening cultivar. If you are looking to brew an authentic European-style lager, this is the best choice. Mild spicy flavor and aroma. (alpha acid: 3.5-5.5% / beta acid: 3.5-5.5%)

Horizon Horizon is a high alpha-aroma cultivar, a diploid seedling result of a cross made in 1970 between the USDA 65009 female plant (with Brewers Gold and Early Green lineage) and the male plant 64035M. It was released as a commercial variety in 1998. (alpha acid: 10.2-16.5% / beta acid: 6.5-8.5%) Liberty Liberty is a triploid aroma-type cultivar, the result in 1983 of the colchicine induced tetrapcoid female cultivar Hallertau mf and a downy mildew resistant male, USDA 64035M. It is a half-sister to Ultra, Mt. Hood and Crystal. (alpha acid: 3.5-4.5% / beta acid: 3.0-3.5%)

Magnum Magnum is a bittering/aroma type cultivar, bred in 1980 at Huell, the German Hop Research Instititute, from the American variety Galena and the German male 75/5/3. (alpha acid: 10.0-12.6% / beta acid: 5.0-7.0%)

Mount Hood Mt. Hood is a triploid aroma-type cultivar, the 1983 result of a cross between the colchicine – induced tetraploid female Hallertau mf (USDA 21397) and the USDA 19058M, male plant. It is a half-sister to Ultra, Liberty and Crystal. An aromatic variety derived from Hallertau with a refined, spicy aroma and clean bittering. A good choice for lagers. (alpha acid: 4.0-6.0% / beta acid: 5.0-7.5%) Northern Brewer Northern Brewer is a bittering-type cultivar, bred in 1934 in England from a Canterbury Golding female plant and the male plant OB21. Northern Brewer has been used in the breeding process of many newer varieties. This cultivar is grown in England, Belgium, Germany and the USA. A strong fragrant hop with a rich rough-hewn flavor and aroma, ideal for steam-style beers and ales. Northern Brewer has a unique mint-like evergreen flavor. (alpha acid: 8.0-10.0%/ beta acid: 3.0-5.0%) Nugget Nugget is a bittering-type cultivar, bred in 1970 from the USDA 65009 female plant and USDA 63015M. The lineage of Nugget is 5/8 Brewers Gold, 1/8 Early Green, 1/16 Canterbury Golding, 1/32 Bavarian and 5/32 unknown.

Nugget is a great bittering hop with a heavy herbal aroma. (alpha acid: 12.5-14.5% / beta acid: 4.0-6.0%) Perle Perle is an aroma-type cultivar, bred in 1978 in Germany from Northern Brewer. It is grown in Germany, Belgium and the U. S. A.

Perle is a newer variety, originally from Germany but now grown quite successfully in the US. Perle is a medium alpha hop with a very clean, almost minty bitterness and pleasant aroma. (alpha acid: 7.0-9.5% / beta acid: 4.0-5.0%)

Saaz Saaz is the traditional noble hop for true pilsner beer. Saaz is famous for its spicy, clean bitterness. (average alpha acid: 3.0%)

Satus Satus is a bittering-type cultivar of recent origin. (alpha acid: 12.5-14.0% / beta acid: 8.5-9.0%) Simcoe Simcoe is a bittering/aroma type cultivar bred by Yakima Chief Ranches. (alpha acid: 12.0-14.0% / beta acid: 4.0-5.0%)

Spalt Select Spalt Select is an aroma – type cultivar, bred in Germany and released for cultivation in the late 1980’s. It is grown in Germany in the Hallertau and Spalt areas and in the U.S.A. in Washington State. (alpha acid: 3.5-5.5% / beta acid: 3.0-4.5%)

Sterling Sterling is an aroma cultivar, a diploid seedling made in 1990 with a 21522 female plant and a 21361 male plant. Its parentage is 1/2 Saazer, 1/4 Cascade, 1/8 64035M (unknown German aroma X open pollination),1/16 Brewers Gold, 1/32 Early Green, and 1/32 unknown. (alpha acid: 4.5-5.0% / beta acid: 5.0-6.0%)

Tettnang Tettnang is an aroma-type cultivar which originated in the Tettnang hop growing area of Germany as a land-race hop. It is grown in the U.S.A. in Oregon and Washington State. The original noble hop from the Tettnang region of Germany, ideal for your finest lagers and wheat beers. This limited availability hop has a fine, pure aroma, that is not present in United States grown Tettnanger. (alpha acid: 4.0-5.0% / beta acid: 3.5-4.5%)

Tomahawk Tomahawk is a bittering hop of recent origin, bred by Charles Zimmermann. It is the first commercially grown ‘Super Alpha’ variety. In 1998 it contributed to 11% of the USA hop crop. (alpha acid: 14.0-18.0% / beta acid: 4.5-5.8%)

Ultra Ultra is a triploid aroma-type cultivar, originated in 1983 from a cross between the colchicine-induced tetraploid Hallertau mf (USDA 21397) and the diploid Saazer-derived male genotype (USDA 21237m). Ultra is the half-sister to Mt. Hood, Liberty and Crystal. Its genetic composition is 4/6 Hallertau mf, 1/6 Saazer, and 1/6 unknown. This cultivar was released for commercial production in March, 1995. (alpha acid: 4.5-5.0% / beta acid: 3.6-4.7%)

US Fuggle A mild-flavored English-style hop grown in Oregon, with a fragrant wood-like aroma. Milder in character than English Fuggles. This hop imparts a smooth, well rounded hop character. (average alpha acid: 3.9%)

Vanguard Vanguard is a diploid seedling made in 1982 between USDA 21285, which has Hallertau mf parentage and USDA 64037m. It was released for cultivation in 1997. (alpha acid: 5.0-6.0% / beta acid: 5.0-7.0%)

Warrior Warrior is a bittering hop of a recent origin, bred by Yakima Chief Ranches. (alpha acid: 15.0-17.0% / beta acid: 4.5-5.5%)

Willamette Willamette is a triploid aroma-type hop, which originated in the mid 1970’s and is a seedling of Fuggle. It is a very popular aroma hop, contributing in 1998 to 18% of the total USA hop crop. A variation on English Fuggle hops grown in Oregon and Washington. Willamette has a fragrant spicy woody aroma. An excellent American aromatic hops for ales and lagers. (alpha acid: 4.0-6.0% / beta acid: 3.5-4.5%)

More Hops
Alpha acids are the precursors to beer bitterness, while beta acids are only slightly bitter and typically lost in the brewing process. Beer bitterness is expressed as

International Bitterness Units (IBUs), which represent a measurement of the intensity of the bitterness of the beer.

Dry hopping is the process of adding hops to the primary fermenter, the maturation tank, or the casked beer to increase the aroma and hop character of the finished beer.

Noble hops are mellow compared to other varieties, and they have a distinct flavour and softness. European bred Saaz, Hallertauer, Tettnanger, Styrian Goldings, Spalt, Perle, and Hersbrucker are noble hops. These varieties exhibit a spicy herbal or floral aroma and flavor, often times a bit coarse on the palate, and distribute a flash of citrus-like zest — hop bitterness can be high.

Beer Terminology

it’s important to know your beer terminology. Here we’ll provide you with a growing list of common beer and brewing terms.

Acetaldehyde
Green apple aroma, a byproduct of fermentation.

Additive
Enzymes, preservatives and antioxidants which are added to simplify the brewing process or prolong shelf life.

Adjunct
Fermentable material used as a substitute for traditional grains, to make beer lighter-bodied or cheaper.

Aerobic
An organism, such as top fermenting ale yeast, that needs oxygen to metabolize.

Alcohol
Ethyl alcohol or ethanol. An intoxicating by-product of fermentation, which is caused by yeast acting on sugars in the malt. Alcohol content is expressed as a percentage of volume or weight.

Alcohol By wWeight
Amount of alcohol in beer measured in terms of the percentage weight of alcohol per volume of beer, i.e., 3.2% alcohol by weights equals 3.2 grams of alcohol per 100 centiliters of beer. (It is approximately 20% less than alcohol by volume.)

Alcohol By Volume
Amount of alcohol in beer in terms of percentage volume of alcohol per volume of beer.

Alcoholic
Warming taste of ethanol and higher alcohol’s.

Ale
Beers distinguished by use of top fermenting yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The top fermenting yeast perform at warmer temperatures than do yeast’s used to brew lager beer, and their byproducts are more evident in taste and aroma. Fruitiness and esters are often part of an ale’s character.

All-Malt
A relatively new term in America. “All malt” refers to a beer made exclusively with barley malt and without adjuncts.

Amber
Any top or bottom fermented beer having an amber color, that is, between pale and dark.

Anaerobic
An organism, such as a bottom-fermenting lager yeast, that is able to metabolize without oxygen present.

Aroma Hops
Varieties of hop chosen to impart bouquet. (See Hops)

Astringent
A drying, puckering taste; tannic; can be derived from boiling the grains, long mashes, over sparging or sparging with hard water.

Attenuation
Extent to which yeast consumes fermentable sugars (converting them into alcohol and carbon dioxide).

Bacterial
A general term covering off-flavors such as moldy, musty, woody, lactic acid, vinegar, or microbiological spoilage.

Balling Degrees Scale
Indicating density of sugars in wort. Devised by C J N Balling.

Barley
A cereal grain that is malted for use in the grist that becomes the mash in the brewing of beer. Barrel A unit of measurement used by brewers in some countries. In Britain, a barrel holds 36 imperial gallons (1 imperial gallon = 4.5 liters), or 1.63 hectoliters. In the United States, a barrel holds 31.5 US gallons (1 US gallon = 3.8 liters), or 1.17 hectoliters.

Beer
Name given alcohol-containing beverages produced by fermenting grain, specifically malt, and flavored with hops.

Bitter
Bitterness of hops or malt husks; sensation on back of tongue.

Bitterness
The perception of a bitter flavor, in beer from iso-alpha-acid in solution (derived from hops). It is measured in International Bitterness Units (IBU).

Black malt
Partially malted barley roasted at high temperatures. Black malt gives a dark color and roasted flavor to beer.

Body
Thickness and mouth-filling property of a beer described as “full or thin bodied”.

Bottle-Conditioning
Secondary fermentation and maturation in the bottle, creating complex aromas and flavors.

Bottom-Fermenting Yeast
One of the two types of yeast used in brewing. Bottom-fermenting yeast works well at low temperatures and ferments more sugars leaving a crisp, clean taste and then settles to the bottom of the tank. Also referred to as “lager yeast”.

Brewhouse
The collective equipment used to make beer.

Brew Kettle
The vessel in which wort from the mash is boiled with hops. Also called a copper. Brewpub Pub that makes its own beer and sells at least 50% of it on premises. Also known in Britain as a home-brew house and in Germany as a house brewery.

Bright Beer Tank
See conditioning tank.

Bung
The stopper in the hole in a keg or cask through which the keg or cask is filled and emptied. The hole may also be referred to as a bung or bunghole. Real beer must use a wooden bung.

Butterscotch
See diacetyl.

Cabbagelike
Aroma and taste of cooked vegetables; often a result of wort spoilage bacteria killed by alcohol in fermentation.

CAMRA
The CAMpaign for Real Ale. An organization in England that was founded in 1971 to preserve the production of cask-conditioned beers and ales.

Carbonation
Sparkle caused by carbon dioxide, either created during fermentation or injected later.

Caramel
A cooked sugar that is used to add color and alcohol content to beer. It is often used in place of more expensive malted barley.

Caramel Malt
A sweet, coppery-colored malt. Caramel or crystal malt imparts both color and flavor to beer. Caramel malt has a high concentration of unfermentable sugars that sweeten the beer and, contribute to head retention.

Cask
A closed, barrel-shaped container for beer. They come in various sizes and are now usually made of metal. The bung in a cask of “Real” beer or ale must be made of wood to allow the pressure to be relived, as the fermentation of the beer, in the cask, continues.

Cask-Conditioning
Secondary fermentation and maturation in the cask at the point of sale. Creates light carbonation.

Chlorophenolic
A plasticlike aroma; caused by chemical combination of chlorine and organic compounds. Chill haze Cloudiness caused by precipitation of protein-tannin compound at low temperatures, does not affect flavor. Chill proof Beer treated to allow it to withstand cold temperatures without clouding. Clovelike Spicy character reminiscent of cloves; characteristic of some wheat beers, or if excessive, may derive from wild yeast. Conditioning Period of maturation intended to impart “condition” (natural carbonation). Warm conditioning further develops the complex of flavors. Cold conditioning imparts a clean, round taste.

Conditioning Tank
A vessel in which beer is placed after primary fermentation where the beer matures, clarifies and, is naturally carbonated through secondary fermentation. Also called bright beer tank, serving tank and, secondary tank.

Contract Beer
Beer made by one brewery and then marketed by a company calling itself a brewery. The latter uses the brewing facilities of the former.

Copper
See brew kettle.

Decoction Exhaustive
system of mashing in which portions of the wort are removed, heated, then returned to the original vessel.

Dextrin
The unfermentable carbohydrate produced by the enzymes in barley. It gives the beer flavor, body, and mouthfeel. Lower temperatures produce more dextrin and less sugar. While higher temperatures produce more sugars and less dextrin.

Diacetyl
A volatile compound in beer that contributes to a butterscotch flavor, measured in parts per million. DMS Taste and aroma of sweet corn; results from malt, as a result of the short or weak boil of the wort, slow wort chilling, or bacterial infection. — Dimethyl sulfide, a sulfur compound. Dosage The addition of yeast and/or sugar to the cask or bottle to aid secondary fermentation.

Draft (Draught)
The process of dispensing beer from a bright tank, cask or, keg, by hand pump, pressure from an air pump or, injected carbon dioxide inserted into the beer container prior to sealing.

Dry-hopping
The addition of dry hops to fermenting or aging beer to increase its hop character or aroma.

EBC European Brewing Convention
An EBC scale is used to indicate colors in malts and beers. Enzymes Catalysts that are found naturally in the grain. When heated in mash, they convert the starches of the malted barley into maltose, a sugar used in solution and fermented to make beer.

Ester Volatile
Flavor compound naturally created in fermentation. Often fruity, flowery or spicy. Estery Aroma or flavor reminiscent of flowers or fruits.

Fahrenheit
(degrees) F = ((Cx9)/( 5) + 32. Fermentation Conversion of sugars into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide, through the action of yeast. Final specific gravity Specific gravity of a beer when fermentation is complete (that is, all fermentable sugars have been fermented). Fining An aid to clarification: a substance that attracts particles that would otherwise remain suspended in the brew.

Filter
The removal of designated impurities by passing the wort through a medium, sometimes made of diatomaceous earth ( made up of the microscopic skeletal remains of marine animals). Yeast in suspension is often targeted for removal. Fruity/Estery Flavor and aroma of bananas, strawberries, apples, or other fruit; from high temperature fermentation and certain yeast strains. Grainy Tastes like cereal or raw grain.

Gravity
See specific gravity.

Grist Brewers’
term for milled grains, or the combination of milled grains to be used in a particular brew. Derives from the verb to grind. Also sometimes applied to hops.

Hand Pump
A device for dispensing draft beer using a pump operated by hand. The use of a hand pump allows the cask-conditioned beer to be served without the use of pressurized carbon dioxide.

Hang
Lingering bitterness or harshness.

Hard Cider
A fermented beverage made from apples.

Heat Exchanger
A mechanical device used to rapidly reduce the temperature of the wort.

Hefe
A German word meaning “yeast”. Used mostly in conjunction with wheat (weiss) beers to denote that the beer is bottled or kegged with the yeast in suspension (hefe-weiss). These beers are cloudy, frothy and, very refreshing.

Hogshead Cask
holding 54 imperial gallons ( 243 liters ). Hop back Sieve-like vessel used to strain out the petals of the hop flowers. Known as a hop jack in the United States. Hops Herb added to boiling wort or fermenting beer to impart a bitter aroma and flavor. Hoppy Aroma of hops, does not include hop bitterness. Infusion Simplest form of mash, in which grains are soaked in water. May be at a single temperature, or with upward or (occasionally) downward changes.

IBU International Bitterness units
A system of indicating the hop bitterness in finished beer.

Keg One-half barrel
Or 15.5 U. S. gallons. A half keg or, 7.75 U. S. gallons, is referred to as a pony-keg.

Kr�usening
The addition of a small proportion of partly fermented wort to a brew during lagering. Stimulates secondary fermentation and imparts a crisp, spritzy character. Lager Beers produced with bottom fermenting yeast strains, Saccharomyces uvarum (or carlsbergensis) at colder fermentation temperatures than ales. This cooler environment inhibits the natural production of esters and other byproducts, creating a crisper tasting product.

Lagering
From the German word for storage. Refers to maturation for several weeks or months at cold temperatures (close to 0�C /32�F) to settle residual yeast, impart carbonation and make for clean round flavors. Lauter To run the wort from the mash tun. From the German word to clarify. A lauter tun is a separate vessel to do this job. It uses a system of sharp rakes to achieve a very intensive extraction of malt sugars.

Lauter Tun
See mash tun.

Length
The amount of wort brewed each time the brew house is in operation. Light-Struck Skunklike smell; from exposure to light. Liquor The brewer’s word for water used in the brewing process, as included in the mash or, used to sparge the grains after mashing.

Malt(ing)
The process by which barley is steeped in water, germinated ,then kilned to convert insoluble starch to soluble substances and sugar. The foundation ingredient of beer.

Malt Extract
The condensed wort from a mash, consisting of maltose, dextrins and, other dissolved solids. Either as a syrup or powdered sugar, it is used by brewers, in solutions of water and extract, to reconstitute wort for fermentation.

Malt Liquor
A legal term used in the U.S. to designate a fermented beverage of relatively high alcohol content (7%-8% by volume).

Mash (Verb)
To release malt sugars by soaking the grains in water. (Noun) The resultant mixture.

Mash Tun
A tank where grist is soaked in water and heated in order to convert the starch to sugar and extract the sugars and other solubles from the grist.

Maltose
A water soluble, fermentable sugar contained in malt.

Mead Meads
Are produced by the fermentation of honey, water, yeast and optional ingredients such as fruit, herbs, and/or spices. According to final gravity, they are categorized as: dry (0.996 to 1009); medium (1010 to 1019); or sweet (1020 or higher). Wine, champagne, sherry, mead, ale or lager yeasts may be used. Medicinal Chemical or phenolic character; can be the result of wild yeast, contact with plastic, or sanitizer residue. Metallic Tastes tinny, bloodlike or coinlike; may come from bottle caps.

Microbrewery
Small brewery generally producing less than 15,000 barrels per year. Sales primarily off premises.

Mouthfeel
A sensation derived from the consistency or viscosity of a beer, described, for example as thin or full. Musty Moldy, mildewy character; can be the result of cork or bacterial infection. Original gravity A measurement of the density of fermentable sugars in a mixture of malt and water with which a brewer begins a given batch. Oxidized Stale flavor of wet cardboard, paper, rotten pineapple, or sherry, as a result of oxygen as the beer ages or is exposed to high temperatures.

Pasteurization
Heating of beer to 60-79(�C/140-174�F to stabilize it microbiologically. Flash-pasteurization is applied very briefly, for 15-60 seconds by heating the beer as it passes through the pipe. Alternately, the bottled beer can be passed on a conveyor belt through a heated tunnel. This more gradual process takes at least 20 minutes and sometimes much longer.

Phenolic
Flavor and aroma of medicine, plastic, Band-Aids, smoke, or cloves; caused by wild yeast or bacteria, or sanitizer residue.

Pitch
To add yeast to wort.

Plato
Degrees Expresses the specific gravity as the weight of extract in a 100 gram solution at 64�F (17.5�C). Refinement of the Balling scale

Priming
The addition of sugar at the maturation stage to promote a secondary fermentation. Pub An establishment that serves beer and sometimes other alcoholic beverages for consumption on premise. The term originated in England and is the shortened form of “public house”.

Publican
The owner or manager of a pub. Regional specialty brewery A brewery that produces more than 15,000 barrels of beer annually, with its largest selling product a specialty beer.

Reinheitsgebot
“Purity Law” originating in Bavaria in 1516 and now applied to all German brewers making beer for consumption in their own country. It requires that only malted grains, hops, yeast and water may be used in the brewing.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
See Top-fermenting yeast.

Saccharomyces uvarum
See Bottom-fermenting yeast.

Saccharomyces carlsbergensis
See Bottom-fermenting yeast.

Salty
Flavor like table salt; experienced on the side of the tongue.

Secondary Fermentation
Stage of fermentation occurring in a closed container from several weeks to several months.

Shelf Life
Describes the number of days a beer will retain it’s peak drinkability. The shelf life for commercially produced beers is usually a maximum of four months.

Solventlike
Reminiscent of acetone or lacquer thinner; caused by high fermentation temperatures.

Sour/Acidic
Vinegarlike or lemonlike; can be caused by bacterial infection. Specific gravity A measure of the density of a liquid or solid compared to that of water ((1.000 at 39�F (4�C)).

Sparge
To spray grist with hot water in order to remove soluble sugars (maltose). This takes place at the end of the mash.

Squares
Brewers’ term for a square fermenting vessel.

Sweet
Taste like sugar; experienced on the front of the tongue.

Sulfurlike
Reminiscent of rotten eggs or burnt matches; a by-product of some yeast’s.

Tart
Taste sensation cause by acidic flavors.

Terminal Gravity
Synonym for final specific gravity.

Top-Fermenting Yeast
One of the two types of yeast used in brewing. Top-fermenting yeast works better at warmer temperatures and are able to tolerate higher alcohol concentrations than bottom-fermenting yeast. It is unable to ferment some sugars, and results in a fruitier, sweeter beer. Also known as “ale yeast”.

Tun
Any large vessels used in brewing. In America, “tub” is often preferred.

Units of bitterness
See IBU.

Vinous
Reminiscent of wine. Winy Sherrylike flavor; can be caused by warm fermentation or oxidation in very old beer.

Wort
The solution of grain sugars strained from the mash tun. At this stage, regarded as “sweet wort”, later as brewed wort, fermenting wort and finally beer.

Wort Chiller
See heat exchanger.

Yeast
A micro-organism of the fungus family. Genus Saccharomyces. Yeasty Yeastlike flavor; a result of yeast in suspension or beer sitting too long on sediment.